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D's design goals attempt to combine the performance and safety of compiled languages with the expressive power of modern dynamic languages. Type inference , automatic memory management and syntactic sugar for common types allow faster development , while bounds checking , design by contract features and a concurrency -aware type system help reduce the occurrence of bugs.
D has, however, been constrained in its design by the rule that any code that is legal in both C and D should behave in the same way.
The inline assembler typifies the differences between D and application languages like Java and C. An inline assembler lets programmers enter machine-specific assembly code within standard D code, a method often used by system programmers to access the low-level features of the processor needed to run programs that interface directly with the underlying hardware , such as operating systems and device drivers.
D has built-in support for documentation comments, allowing automatic documentation generation. D supports five main programming paradigms: Imperative programming in D is almost identical to that in C.
Functions, data, statements, declarations and expressions work just as they do in C, and the C runtime library may be accessed directly.
On the other hand, some notable differences between D and C in the area of imperative programming include D's foreach loop construct, which allows looping over a collection, and nested functions , which are functions that are declared inside of another and may access the enclosing function's local variables.
Object-oriented programming in D is based on a single inheritance hierarchy, with all classes derived from class Object. D also allows the defining of static and final non-virtual methods in interfaces.
Metaprogramming is supported by a combination of templates, compile time function execution, tuples , and string mixins.
The following examples demonstrate some of D's compile-time features. This is a regular function that calculates the factorial of a number:.
Here, the use of static if , D's compile-time conditional construct, is demonstrated to construct a template that performs the same calculation using code that is similar to that of the function above:.
In the following two examples, the template and function defined above are used to compute factorials. The types of constants need not be specified explicitly as the compiler infers their types from the right-hand sides of assignments:.
This is an example of compile time function execution. Ordinary functions may be used in constant, compile-time expressions provided they meet certain criteria:.
String mixins, combined with compile-time function execution, allow generating D code using string operations at compile time. This can be used to parse domain-specific languages to D code, which will be compiled as part of the program:.
D supports functional programming features such as function literals , closures , recursively-immutable objects and the use of higher-order functions.
There are two syntaxes for anonymous functions, including a multiple-statement form and a "shorthand" single-expression notation: There are two built-in types for function literals, function , which is simply a pointer to a stack-allocated function, and delegate , which also includes a pointer to the surrounding environment.
Type inference may be used with an anonymous function, in which case the compiler creates a delegate unless it can prove that an environment pointer is not necessary.
Likewise, to implement a closure, the compiler places enclosed local variables on the heap only if necessary for example, if a closure is returned by another function, and exits that function's scope.
When using type inference, the compiler will also add attributes such as pure and nothrow to a function's type, if it can prove that they apply.
Other functional features such as currying and common higher-order functions such as map , filter , and reduce are available through the standard library modules std.
Memory is usually managed with garbage collection , but specific objects may be finalized immediately when they go out of scope. Explicit memory management is possible using the overloaded operators new and delete , and by simply calling C 's malloc and free directly.
Garbage collection can be controlled: SafeD  is the name given to the subset of D that can be guaranteed to be memory safe no writes to memory that were not allocated or that have already been recycled.
Functions marked safe are checked at compile time to ensure that they do not use any features that could result in corruption of memory, such as pointer arithmetic and unchecked casts, and any other functions called must also be marked as safe or trusted.
Functions can be marked trusted for the cases where the compiler cannot distinguish between safe use of a feature that is disabled in SafeD and a potential case of memory corruption.
C 's application binary interface ABI is supported as well as all of C's fundamental and derived types, enabling direct access to existing C code and libraries.
D bindings are available for many popular C libraries. Additionally, C's standard library is a part of standard D.
Walter Bright decided to start working on a new language in D was first released in December ,  and reached version 1. Dissatisfied with Phobos, D's official runtime and standard library , members of the D community created an alternative runtime and standard library named Tango.
The first public Tango announcement came within days of D 1. Being a community-led project, Tango was more open to contributions, which allowed it to progress faster than the official standard library.
At that time, Tango and Phobos were incompatible due to different runtime support APIs the garbage collector, threading support, etc.
This made it impossible to use both libraries in the same project. The existence of two libraries, both widely in use, has led to significant dispute due to some packages using Phobos and others using Tango.
In June , the first version of D2 was released. D2 was to introduce breaking changes to the language, beginning with its first experimental const system.
D2 later added numerous other language features, such as closures , purity , and support for the functional and concurrent programming paradigms. D2 also solved standard library problems by separating the runtime from the standard library.
The completion of a D2 Tango port was announced in February This has led to a significant increase in contributions to the compiler, runtime and standard library.
In December , Andrei Alexandrescu announced that D1, the first version of the language, would be discontinued on 31 December Code for the official D compiler, the Digital Mars D compiler by Walter Bright, was originally released under a custom license , qualifying as source available but not conforming to the open source definition.
On 7 April , the entire compiler was made available under the Boost license after Symantec gave permission to re-license the back-end, too.
Most current D implementations compile directly into machine code for efficient execution. This example program prints its command line arguments.
The main function is the entry point of a D program, and args is an array of strings representing the command line arguments. A string in D is an array of characters, represented by char in D1, or immutable char  in D2.
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